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bt磁力链 最好磁力Lecturer University of Education Lahore, Multan Campus

Saturday, February 23, 2008

Scheme of Study and Syllabi for B.Ed

Teaching Profession

01.Teaching Profession: An Introduction
02.Characteristics of Teaching Profession
03.Teaching profession Responsibilities
04.Duties and Rights of Teachers
05.Characteristics of Good Teacher
06.Role of a Teacher
07.Professional Organizations
08.Professional Code of Ethics
09.Teacher education in National context

10.Teacher’s salary package and Problems
11. Teacher’s salary package and Problems
12. Teaching Strategies

Suggested Books.

Scheme of Study and Syllabi for M.A Education

bt磁力链 最好磁力

1. Nature of Instructional Technology
2. Role of Instructional technology in effective classroom communication
3. Projected and Non-Projected Teaching Aids in classroom learning
4. Role of Media in Teaching-Learning Process
5. Designing Instruction
6. Instructional technology and Learning Assessment

Scheme of Study and Syllabi for M.Ed

M.Ed 508: Instructional Technology

At the completion of the course the students will:
Understand Instructional Technology and categorize techniques to make teaching learning process more efficient.
Solve day to day teaching learning problems.
Apply appropriate teaching methods and techniques.
Differentiate different teaching learning projected and non-projected resources.
Present practical, efficient ways to integrate technology resources and technology based methods in to every day curriculum-specific practices.

1) Introduction
1.1 Definition, Meaning and scope of Instructional Technology
1.2 History of Instructional Technology
1.3 Types, Approaches of Instructional Technology
1.4 Theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evolution of subject matter, Learner’s characteristics and Learner’s Environment.
1.5 Technique of solving day to day teaching, Learning problems
1.6 Instructional Technology & Challenges of 21st Century.
2) Basic Aspects of Instructional Technology
2.1 Teaching, Instruction and Learning: Basic Difference
2.2 Education and Teaching: Basic Difference
2.3 Phases of Teaching, Instruction
2.4 Principles and maxims of Teaching
3) Instructional, Technology and Teacher, Instructor
3.1 A comprehensive Technology
3.2 Characteristics of Teacher/Instructor
4) Instructional Strategies
4.1 Meaning of Strategy, Method, technique and Tactics.
4.2 Types of teaching strategies (Autocratic/ Permissive)
4.3 Approaches (Pedagogical, Andragogical) Scaffolding
5) Instructional Technology Resources
5.1 Projected Aids:
Films, Film Strips, Opaque Projector, Overhead Projector, Slides, Multimedia
5.2 Graphic aids:
Cartoons, Charts, Comics, Diagrams, Flash Cards, Graphs, Maps, Globes,
Photographs, Pictures, posters
5.3 Display Boards:
Black Boards, Writing Boards, Bulletin, Flannel Boards, Magnetic Board,
Electronic Board, Peg Board.

5.4 3-Dimensional Aids:
Diagrams, models, Mockups, Real Objects, Puppets, Specimens.
5.5 Audio Visual Aids:
Radio, recording, Television
5.6 Activity Aids:
Demonstrations, Experimentation, Field Trips, Programmed Instruction
6) Integrating computer Technology in the Classroom Teaching and

6.1 Communications, Networks, Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW).
6.2 Educational Software applications
6.3 Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Teaching Strategies

In general, collaborative, participative and interactive approaches. Discussions, assignments, projects using “Learner centered methods”
“Reflective Journals” on each on each session
Maintaining course portfolios

Suggested Books
1) Darbyshire P. (2005). Instructional Technologies Cognitive Aspects of Online Program. London; IREM Press
2) Henery Ellington, Fred Phil Race,(1993). Handbook of Educational technology. London; Kogan Paul
3) Rowntrec D.(1988). Educational Technology in Curriculum Development. London: Harper & Row

Instructional Technology M.Ed Chapter 01


What is Instruction?
An instruction is a form of communicated information that is both command and explanation for how an action, behavior, method, or task is to be begun, completed, conducted, or executed.
Instruction may also refer to:
1.Teaching – teachers are also called instructors.
2.Sebayt – a work of the ancient Egyptian didactic literature aiming to teach ethical behaviour.
3.Instruction (computer science) – a single operation of a processor within a computer
4.In the context of French law (or inquisitorial systems based on France's), the instruction is the pre-trial phase of a criminal investigation that is led by a judge. More generally, it refers to phases of judicial or administrative proceedings where a request is investigated, and information pertaining to it is collected, before a final decision is made.
Instruction was the name of a rock band from New York City
What is Technology?
Technology is a broad concept that deals with a species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species' ability to control and adapt to its environment. In human society, it is a consequence of science and engineering, although several technological advances predate the two concepts. Technology is a term with origins in the Greek "technologia", "τεχνολογ?α" — "techne", "τ?χνη" ("craft") and "logia", "λογ?α" ("saying").[1] However, a strict definition is elusive; "technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".
Communication is a process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods. Exchange requires
feedback. The word communication is also used in the context where little or no feedback is expected such as broadcasting, or where the feedback may be delayed as the sender or receiver use different methods, technologies, timing and means for feedback.Communication is the articulation of sending a message, whether it be verbal or nonverbal, so long as a being transmits a thought provoking idea, gesture, action, etc. . .
Communication can be defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. It is the act of passing information and the process by which meanings are exchanged so as to produce understanding.Communication is the process by which any message is given or received through talking, writing, or making gestures.There are auditory means, such as speaking, singing and sometimes tone of voice, and nonverbal, physical means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, or the use of writing. Communication happens at many levels (even for one single action), in many different ways, and for most beings, as well as certain machines. Several, if not all, fields of study dedicate a portion of attention to communication, so when speaking about communication it is very important to be sure about what aspects of communication one is speaking about. Definitions of communication range widely, some recognizing that animals can communicate with each other as well as human beings, and some are more narrow, only including human beings within the parameters of human symbolic interaction.Nonetheless, communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:
1.Content (what type of things are communicated)
2.Source/Emisor/Sender/Encoder (by whom)
3.Form (in which form)
4.Channel (through which medium)
5.Destination/Receiver/Target/Decoder (to whom)
6.Purpose/Pragmatic aspect

Communication as information transmission
Communication: transmitting a message with the expectation of some kind of response. This can be interpersonal or intrapersonal.Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules:
1.Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols),
2.pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) and
3.semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent).
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. (This commonly held rule in some sense ignores autocommunication, including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk). In a simple model, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked reciprocally.A particular instance of communication is called a speech act. In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in this case), reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect.
Dialogue is a form of communication in which both the parties are involved in sending and receiving information.
Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of information.
Nonverbal communication is the act of imparting or interchanging thoughts, posture, opinions or information without the use of words, using gestures, sign language, facial expressions and body language instead.
Information exchange between living organisms
Communication in many of its facets is not limited to humans, or even to primates. Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals involving a living sender and receiver — can be considered a form of communication. Thus, there is the broad field of animal communication, which encompasses most of the issues in ethology. On a more basic level, there is cell signaling, cellular communication, and chemical communication between primitive organisms like bacteria, and within the plant and fungal kingdoms. All of these communication processes are sign-mediated interactions with a great variety of distinct coordinations.
Animal communication
Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behavior of another animal. Of course, human communication can be subsumed as a highly developed form of animal communication. The study of animal communication, called zoosemiotics (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition. This is quite evident as humans are able to communicate with animals especially dolphins and other animals used in circuses however these animals have to learn a special means of communication.
Animal communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so far, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized.

Plant communication
Plant communication is observed (a) within the plant organism, i.e. within plant cells and between plant cells, (b) between plants of the same or related species and (c) between plants and non-plant organisms, especially in the rootzone. Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizobia bacteria, with fungi and with insects in the soil. This parallel sign-mediated interactions which are governed by syntactic, pragmatic and semantic rules are possible because of the decentralized "nervous system" of plants. As recent research shows 99% of intraorganismic plant communication processes are neuronal-like. Plants also communicate via volatiles in the case of herbivory attack behavior to warn neighboring plants. In parallel they produce other volatiles which attract parasites which attack these herbivores. In stress situations plants can overwrite the genetic code they inherited from their parents and revert to that of their grand- or great-grandparents.
Bacteria communication
There are communication processes between different species of bacteria and between bacteria and non bacterial life such as eukaryotic hosts. Beneath the semiochemicals necessary for developmental processes of bacterial communities such as division, sporulation, and synthesis of secondary metabolites there are physical contact-mediated behavioral patterns being important in biofilm organisation. There are three classes of signalling molecules for different purposes, i.e. signalling within the organism to coordinate gene expressions to generate adequate response behavior, signalling between same or related and different species. The most popular communicative behavior is ?quorum sensing“. Quorum sensing is the term for description of sign-mediated interactions in which chemical molecules are produced and secreted by bacteria. They are recognized of the bacterial community dependent on a critical concentration and in a special ratio to the population density. These molecules trigger the expression of a great variety of gene transcriptions. The semiochemicals used by bacteria are of great variety, especially because some signalling molecules are multiple re-usable components. Today three kinds of communicative goals are distinguished: (A) reciprocal communication, active sign-mediated interactions which is beneficial for both interacting parts; (B) messages which are produced as response on a triggering event which may be an indicator for a receiver which was not specially targeted by the producer. A coincidental event which is neutral – except of the energy costs of production – to the producer but beneficial for the receiver; (C) signalling to manipulate the receiver, i.e. to cause a response behavior which is onesided beneficial to the producer and harms the receivers often in that they behave against their normal goals. The three classes of bacteria communication enable bacteria to generate and coordinate different behavioral patterns: self and non-self identification, i.e. identification of other colonies and measurement of their size, pheromone based courtship for mating, alteration of colony structure in formatting of fruiting bodies, initiation of developmental and growth processes e.g. sporulation.

Fungal communication
Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their own growth and development such as the formation of mycelia and fruiting bodies. Additionally fungi communicate with same and related species as well as with nonfungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions, especially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryotes, plants and insects. The used semiochemicals are of biotic origin and they trigger the fungal organism to react in a specific manner, in difference while to even the same chemical molecules are not being a part of biotic messages doesn’t trigger to react the fungal organism. It means, fungal organisms are competent to identify the difference of the same molecules being part of biotic messages or lack of these features. So far five different primary signalling molecules are known that serve to coordinate very different behavioral patterns such as filamentation, mating, growth, pathogenicity. Behavioral coordination and the production of such substances can only be achieved through interpretation processes: self or non-self, abiotic indicator, biotic message from similar, related, or non-related species, or even “noise”, i.e., similar molecules without biotic content.
A language is a syntactically organized system of signals, such as voice sounds, intonations or pitch, gestures or written symbols which communicate thoughts or feelings. If a language is about communicating with signals, voice, sounds, gestures, or written symbols, can animal communications be considered as a language? Animals do not have a written form of a language, but use a language to communicate with each another. In that sense, an animal communication can be considered as a separated language.
The beginning of human communication through artificial channels, i.e. not vocalization or gestures, goes back to ancient cave paintings, drawn maps, and writing.
Our indebtedness to the Ancient Romans in the field of communication does not end with the Latin root "communicare". They devised what might be described as the first real mail or postal system in order to centralize control of the empire from Rome. This allowed for personal letters and for Rome to gather knowledge about events in its many widespread provinces.
The adoption of a dominant communication medium is important enough that historians have folded civilization into "ages" according to the medium most widely used. A book titled "Five Epochs of Civilization" by William McGaughey (Thistlerose, 2000) divides history into the following stages: Ideographic writing produced the first civilization; alphabetic writing, the second; printing, the third; electronic recording and broadcasting, the fourth; and computer communication, the fifth. The media affects what people think about themselves and how they perceive people as well. What we think about self image and what others should look like comes from the media.While it could be argued that these "Epochs" are just a historian's construction, digital and computer communication shows concrete evidence of changing the way humans organize. The latest trend in communication, termed smartmobbing, involves ad-hoc organization through mobile devices, allowing for effective many-to-many communication and social networking.

Electronic media
In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analogue and digital media:
Analog telecommunications include traditional telephony, radio, and TV broadcasts.
Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication, telegraphy, and computer networks.
Communications media impact more than the reach of messages. They impact content and customs; for example, Thomas Edison had to discover that hello was the least ambiguous greeting by voice over a distance; previous greetings such as hail tended to be garbled in the transmission. Similarly, the terseness of e-mail and chat rooms produced the need for the emoticon.
Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mail, Internet forums). On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication (television, cinema, radio, newspaper, magazines).
Instructional technology is "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning,"

The first use of instructional technology cannot be attributed to a specific person or time. Many histories of instructional technology start in the early 1900s, while others go back to the 1600s. This depenocused on sensory devices are relatively more recent.The use of audio and visual instruction was boosted as a military response to the problems of a labor shortage during
WWII in the United States. There was a definitive need to fill the factories with skilled labor. Instructional technology provided a methodology for training in a systematic and efficient manner.With it came the use of highly structured manuals, instructional films, and standardized tests. Thomas Edison saw the value of instructional technology in films but did not formalize the science of instruction as the US military did so well.
World War II, or the Second World War, was a global military conflict, the joining of what had initially been two separate conflicts. The first began in Asia in 1937 as the Second Sino-Japanese War; the other began in Europe in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. This global conflict split the majority of the world's nations into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis Powers. Spanning much of the globe, World War II resulted in the death of over 60 million people, making it the deadliest conflict in human history.[1]World War II involved the mobilization of over 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history. The war placed the participants in a state of "total war", erasing the distinction between civil and military resources. This resulted in the complete activation of a nation's economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities for the purposes of the war effort; nearly two-thirds of those killed in the war were civilians[citation needed]. From 9 to 11 million of these civilian casualties were victims of the Holocaust—which was conducted by Nazi Germany—largely in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.[2] The financial cost of the war is estimated at about a trillion 1944 U.S. dollars worldwide,[3][4] making it the most costly war in capital as well as lives.The Allies were victorious, and, as a result, the United States and Soviet Union emerged as the world's two leading superpowers. This set the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 45 years. The United Nations was formed in hopes of preventing another such conflict. The self determination spawned by the war gave rise to decolonization movements in Asia and Africa, while Europe itself began moving toward integration.
Current status: Instructional technology is a growing field of study which uses technology as a means to solve educational challenges, both in the classroom and in distance learning environments. While instructional technology promises solutions to many educational problems, resistance from faculty and administrators to the use of technology in the classroom is not unusual. This reaction can arise from the belief - or fear - that the ultimate aim of instructional technology is to reduce or even remove the human element of instruction. Most instructional technologists however, would counter with this claim that education will always require human intervention from instructors or facilitators. Many
graduate programs are producing instructional designers, who increasingly are being employed by industry and universities to create materials for distance education programs. These professionals often employ e-learning tools, which provide distance learners the opportunity to interact with instructors and experts in the field, even if they are not located physically close to each other. More recently a new form of Instructional technology known as Human Performance Technology has evolved. HPT focuses on performance problems and deals primarily with corporate entities.

Relation to learning theory:
The purpose of instructional technology, of course, is the promotion of learning. Learning theory (education) has influenced Instructional design and Instructional designers (the practitioners of Instructional Technology). Instructional Technologies promote communication and interactivity. These two come together under the general heading of Interaction.Moore (1989) argues that there are three types of learner interaction (learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner interactions). In the years since Moore's article, several philosophical views have surfaced that relate Instructional technology to these types of interaction.Most traditional researchers (those subscribing to Cognitivism) argue that learner-content interaction is perhaps the most important endeavor of Instructional technology. Some researchers (those subscribing to constructivism) argue that Moore's social interactions, (learner-instructor and learner-learner interactions), are as useful as learner-content interaction.
Areas: Within the field of instructional technology, there are many specific areas of focus. While instructional technology can apply to the military and corporate settings,
educational technology is instructional technology applied to a learning and teaching environment. Razavi (2005) advocates that educational technology covers instructional technology. It includes instructional technology and the field study in human teaching and learning. So educational technology is broader than instructional technology. Instructional technology itself is consisted from two major parts. One is teaching technology and another is learning technology. In the education industry, the term "instructional technology" is frequently used interchangeably with "educational technology. "Human Performance Technology (HPT) has a focus on corporate environments. Learning sciences are a growing area of focus dealing instructional techniques and learning theories.

Instructional theory is a discipline that focuses on how to structure material for promoting the education of humans, particularly youth. Originating in the United States in the late 1970s, instructional theory is typically divided into two categories: the cognitive and behaviorist schools of thought. Instructional theory was spawned off the 1956 work of Benjamin Bloom, a University of Chicago professor, and the results of his Taxonomy of Education Objectives — one of the first modern codifications of the learning process. One of the first instructional theorists was Robert M. Gagne, who in 1965 published Conditions of Learning for the Florida State University's Department of Educational Research.Renowned psychologist B. F. Skinner's theories of behavior were highly influential on instructional theorists because their hypotheses can be tested fairly easily with the scientific process. It is more difficult to demonstrate cognitive learning results. Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of the Oppressed, first published in English in 1968 — had a broad influence over a generation of American educators with his critique of various "banking" models of education and analysis of the teacher-student relationship.In the context of e-learning, a major discussion in instructional theory is the potential of learning objects to structure and deliver content. A stand-alone educational animation is an example of a learning object that can be re-used as the basis for different learning experiences. There are currently many groups trying to set standards for the development and implementation of learning objects. At the forefront of the standards groups is the Department of Defense's Advanced Distributed Learning initiative with its SCORM standards. SCORM stands for Shareable Content Object Reference Model.Educational-Technology Educational technology is an area of study and practice within the fields of education and/or psychology. The term educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, instructional theory and learning theory. While instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability.It is important to consider the meaning of technology to understand the meaning of the word in an educational context. The popular definition of technology refers to machine or electronic systems. Under this definition, for example, a DVD player or an Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system constitute technology. However, fields such as Educational Technology rely on a more fulsome definition of the word. "Technology" can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. One who practices educational technology is called an educational technologist.Consider the publication "Handbook of Human Performance Technology" (Eds. Harold Stolovich, Erica Keeps, James Pershing)(3rd ed, 2006). The word technology for the sister fields of Educational and Human Performance Technology means "applied science". In other words, any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the "scientific method" is considered a "technology". Educational or Human Performance Technology may be based purely on algorithmic or heuristic processes but neither necessarily implies physical technology.An Educational Technologist is a person who transforms basic educational / psychological, or other allied sciences, research into an evidence-based applied science (or a technology) of learning or instruction. A classic example of an Educational Technology is "Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc." Educational Technologists typically have a graduate degree (Master's, Doctorate, Ph.D., or D.Phil.) in a field related to educational psychology, educational media, experimental psychology, cognitive psychology or, more purely, in the fields of Educational, Instructional or Human Performance Technology or Instructional (Systems),Design.

Types of Instructional Technology
· The evolution of technology in education
· The technology of teaching
· Instructional technology
· Assistive technology
· Medical technology
· Technology productivity tools
· Information technology
· A complex example

To many of us, the term technology conjures up visions of things such as computers, cell phones, spaceships, digital video players, computer games, advanced military equipment, and other highly sophisticated machines. Such perceptions have been acquired and reinforced through exposure to televised reports of fascinating devices and news articles about them, science fiction books and movies, and our use of equipment such as automobiles, telephones, computers, and automatic teller machines. While this focus on devices and machines seems to be very prevalent among the general population, many educators also hold a similar perspective. Since Pressey developed the first teaching machine in 1926 (Nazzaro, 1977), technology applications in public schools and post-secondary education institutions have tended to focus on the acquisition and use of equipment such as film projectors, audio and video tape recorders, overhead projectors, and computers.
Since the early 1960s, however, a trend has emerged that is changing the way we perceive technology in education. At that time, educators began considering the concept of instructional technology. Subsequently, after considerable deliberation, a Congressional Commission on Instructional Technology (1970) concluded that technology involved more than just hardware. The Commission concluded that, in addition to the use of devices and equipment, instructional technology also involves a systematic way of designing and delivering instruction.
With the rapid development of microcomputer technology, increased research on instructional procedures, and the invention of new devices and equipment to aid those with health problems, physical disabilities, and sensory impairments, the latter third of the 20th century has borne witness to a very dramatic evolution. The current perspective is a broad one in which six types of technology are recognized: the technology of teaching, instructional technology, assistive technology, medical technology, technology productivity tools, and information technology (Blackhurst & Edyburn, 2000)

The technology of teaching refers to instructional approaches that are very systematically designed and applied in very precise ways. Such approaches typically include the use of well-defined objectives, precise instructional procedures based upon the tasks that students are required to learn, small units of instruction that are carefully sequenced, a high degree of teacher activity, high levels of student involvement, liberal use of reinforcement, and careful monitoring of student performance.
Instructional procedures that embody many of these principles include approaches such as direct instruction and applied behavior analysis

Although there are differing opinions about the nature of instructional technology, the Commission on Instructional Technology (1970) provided the following definition:
Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction. (p. 199)
Typical applications of instructional technology may use conventional media such as videotapes, computer assisted instruction, or more complex systems, such as hypermedia programs in which computers are used to control the display of audio and visual images stored on videodisc (Blackhurst & Morse, 1996), CD-ROM and digital video discs. The use of telecommunication systems, particularly the Internet (Williams, 1995) and its World Wide Web component (Williams, 1996), have great promise for use in classrooms and for distance education. Computer software systems are now available that can be used to manage the delivery of instruction via the Web. Such systems have been used successfully to deliver instruction to undergraduate and graduate students on topics related to special education (Blackhurst, Hales, & Lahm, 1997). It is important to note the various components of the above definition and to realize that technology is actually a tool for the delivery of instruction. In this conceptualization, technological devices are considered as means to an end and not an end in and of themselves. Use of technology cannot compensate for instruction that is poorly designed or implemented.

Assistive technology employs the use of various types of services and devices designed to help people with disabilities function within the environment. Assistive technologies include mechanical, electronic, and microprocessor-based equipment, non-mechanical and non-electronic aids, specialized instructional materials, services, and strategies that people with disabilities can use either to (a) assist them in learning,
(b) make the environment more accessible,
(c) enable them to compete in the workplace,
(d) enhance their independence, or
(e) otherwise improve their quality of life.
Assistive technologies may include commercially available or "home made" devices that are specially designed to meet the idiosyncratic needs of a particular individual (Blackhurst & Lahm, 2000). Examples include eyeglasses, communication aids, alternative computer keyboards, adaptive switches, and services such as those that might be provided by speech/language pathologists.

The field of medicine continues to amaze us with the advances constantly being made in medical technology. In addition to seemingly miraculous surgical procedures that are technology-based, many individuals are dependent upon medical technology to stay alive or otherwise enable people to function outside of hospitals and other medical settings. It is not uncommon to see people in their home and community settings who use medical technology.
For example, artifical limbs and hip and knee implants can help people function in the environment. Cochlear implants can often improve the hearing of people with auditory nerve damage. Some devices provide respiratory assistance through oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation. Others, such as cardiorespiratory monitors and pulse oximeters are used as surveillance devices that alert an attendant to a potential vitality problem. Nutritive assistive devices can assist in tube feeding or elimination through ostomies. Intravenous therapy can be provided through medication infusion and kidney function can be assumed by kidney dialysis machines (Batshaw & Perret, 1992). In addition to keeping people alive, technologies such as these can enable people to fully participate in school, community, and work activities.

As the name implies, technology productivity tools are computer software, hardware, and related systems that enable us to work more effectively and efficiently. For example, computer software such as database programs can be used to store and rapidly retrieve information; word processing programs can be used to easily edit text material; FAX machines can facilitate the transmission of written documents over long distances; expert system computer programs can aid in decision making, such as weather forecasting; and video conferencing facilities can reduce the need for travel.

Information technologies provide access to knowledge and resources on a wide range of topics. The Internet, and its World Wide Web component, is the most prominent example of information technology. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is another example. The ERIC system enables people to search and locate much of the world's educational literature on a given topic. More information about the ERIC System is available elsewhere on this Web site.

Each of the above types of technology has significant implications for the education of students with disabilities, in and of itself. It is important to remember, however, that these also may be used in combination.
For example, a high school student who is paralyzed may require a respirator to assist in breathing (medical technology). In a course designed to teach about telecommunications, that individual may use a voice-operated computer (assistive technology) to pursue a tutorial about how to design databases from a software program (instructional technology) that was designed according to principles of near-errorless learning (technology of teaching). As a result of the tutorial, the student will be able to set up a database, enter and retrieve information necessary to function effectively in class (technology productivity tool) and use the Internet (information technology) to locate information that could be stored in the database. While the above example may be somewhat extreme, it serves to place the various types of technology into perspective. In reality, it is more likely that only one or two types of technology would be used at a time. It is important to keep the different types of technology in mind when considering technology solutions for people with disabilities.

Developing Instruction or Instructional Design Theory
This page presents five theories for developing instruction. The five models should be read first as they provide a framework to build upon and are fairly consistent in their approach. The two main differences are the level of detail that they go into and their semantics.The sixth section brings the theories together in an easy to follow model for ID design. This is followed by a section of resource of templates.There are three types of strategies within Instruction Design theories:Organizational strategies are broken down on the micro or macro level and deals with the way in which a lesson is arranged and sequenced,Delivery strategies are concerned with the decisions that affect the way in which information is carried to the student, particularly, the selection of instructional media.Management strategies involve the decisions that help the learner interact with the activities designed for learning.Robert Gagné's Nine Steps of InstructionThere are three principal means of acquiring knowledge available to us: observation of nature, reflection, and experimentation. Observation collects facts; reflection combines them; experimentation verifies the result of that combination. Our observation of nature must be diligent, our reflection profound, and our experiments exact. We rarely see these three means combined; and for this reason, creative geniuses are not common.Denis Diderot (1713–84), French philosopher. On the Interpretation of Nature, no. 15 (1753; repr. in Selected Writings, ed. by Lester G. Crocker, 1966).Gain attention. Present a problem or a new situation. Use an "interest device" that grabs the learner's attention. This can be thought of as a "teaser" (the short segment shown in a TV show right before the opening credits that is designed to keep you watching and listening). The ideal is to grab the learners' attention so that they will watch and listen, while you present the learning point. You can use such devices as:-Storytelling-Demonstrations-Presenting a problem to be solved-Doing something the wrong way (the instruction would then show how to do it the right way)-Why it is important-Inform learner of Objective.
This allows the learner's to organize their thoughts and around what they are about to see, hear, and/or do. There is a saying in the training filed to 1) tell them what you're going to tell them, 2) tell them, and 3) tell them what you told them. This cues them and then provides a review which has proven to be effective. e.g. describe the goal of a lesson, state what the learners will be able to accomplish and how they will be able to use the knowledge.Stimulate recall of prior knowledge. This allows the learners to build on their previous knowledge or skills. Although we are capable of having our "creative" minutes, it is much easier to build on what we already know. e.g. remind the learners of prior knowledge relevant to the current lesson, provide the learners with a framework that helps learning and remembering.Present the material. Chunk the information to avoid memory overload. Blend the information to aid in information recall. This is directly related to Skinner's "sequenced learning events." This allows learners to receive feedback on individualized tasks, thereby correcting isolated problems rather than having little idea of where the root of the learning challenge lies. Bloom's Taxonomy and Learning Strategies can be used to help sequence the lesson by helping you chunk them into levels of difficulty.Provide guidance for learning. This is not the presentation of content, but are instructions on how to learn. This is normally simpler and easier than the subject matter or content. It uses a different channel or media to avoid mixing it with the subject matter. The rate of learning increases because learners are less likely to lose time or become frustrated by basing performance on incorrect facts or poorly understood concepts.Elicit performance. Practice by letting the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior, skills, or knowledgeProvide feedback. Show correctness of the learner's response, analyze learner's behavior. This can be a test, quiz, or verbal comments. The feedback needs to be specific, not, "you are doing a good job" Tell them "why" they are doing a good job or provide specific guidance.Assess performance. Test to determine if the lesson has been learned. Can also give general progress informationEnhance retention and transfer. Inform the learner about similar problem situations, provide additional practice, put the learner in a transfer situation, review the lesson.Army Research Institute on Behavioral & Social Sciences completed a meta-analysis of the effects of overlearning. Overlearning is additional training for the learner that occurs after the learner has reached proficiency on the task.The results of the meta-analysis indicate that overlearning produces reliably better retention of the skill than just training to proficiency. Even after thousands of practice trials, performance continues to improve. Apparently, when considering the amount of practice - no amount is ever too much, especially for fundamental skills.
John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational DesignAccording to John Keller, there are four steps in the instructional design process - Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS).AttentionAccording to Keller attention can be gained in two ways:Perceptual arousal - uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events.Inquiry arousal - stimulates curiosity by posing challenging questions or problems to be solved. Stimulates information seeking behavior by posing or having the learner generate questions or a problem to solve. Maintain interest by varying the elements of instruction.Methods for grabbing the learners' attention include:Specific examples - Use a visual stimuli, story, or biography.Active Participation or Hands-on - Involve the learners with role playing, games, lab work, or other simulations that allows them to get them involved with the material or subject matter. Note that active participation should almost always be included!Incongruity and Conflict - Pose facts or statements that run contrary to the learner's previous experiences. Play devils advocate while discussing the subject to be covered.Inquiry - Stimulate curiosity by posing questions or problems for the learners to solve. It may include such activities as brainstorming or performing team research.Humor - Break up monotony and maintain interest by lightening the subject. However, too much humor distracts from your main topic. The goal is to hold your learner's attention, not to become a stand up comedian.Variability - Combine a variety of methods in presenting material. Foe example, a 15 lecture, watch a video, then divide the classroom into groups to review the material and to answer questions posed by it. Using a variety of methods reinforces the material and helps to incorporate a variety of learning styles. Also see Media. The first step, "gaining the learner's attention" is normally relatively easy; the key is to then maintain their attention at an optimal level after grabbing them. You have to keep them from becoming bored nor over stimulate them (see Arousal).RelevanceEmphasize relevance within the instruction to increase motivation by using concrete language and examples with which the learners are familiar. They are six major strategies foe accomplishing this:Experience - Tell the learners how the new learning will use their existing skills. We best learn by building upon our preset knowledge or skills.Present Worth - What will the subject matter do for me today?Future Usefulness - What will the subject matter do for me tomorrow?Needs Matching - Take advantage of the dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power, and affiliation (see Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs).Modeling - First of all, "be what you want them to do!" Other strategies include guest speakers, videos, and having the learners who finish their work first to serve as tutors.Choice - Allow the learners to use different methods to pursue their work or allowing s choice in how they organize it.ConfidenceAllow the learners to succeed! However, present a degree of challenge that provides meaningful success. Provide Objectives and Prerequisites - Help students estimate the probability of success by presenting performance requirements and evaluation criteria. Ensure the learners are aware of performance requirements and evaluative criteria.Grow the Learners - Every learning journey begins with a single step that builds upon itself. This allows a number of small success that gets more challenging with every step. Learners should understand that there is a correlation between the amount of energy they put into a learning experience and the amount of skill and knowledge they will gain from that experience.Feedback - Provide feedback and support internal attributions for success.Learner Control - Learners should feel some degree of control over their learning and assessment (see Constructivism). They should believe that their success is a direct result of the amount of effort they have put forth.SatisfactionProvide opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge or skill in a real or simulated setting. Provide feedback and reinforcements that will sustain the desired behavior. If learners feel good about learning results, they will be motivated to learn. Satisfaction is based upon motivation, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Some basic rules are:Do not annoy the learner by over-rewarding simple behavior.If negative consequences are too entertaining the learners may deliberately choose the wrong answer.Using too many extrinsic rewards may eclipse the instruction.Notice that satisfaction is closely related to confidence. If you allow the learners to build confidence, satisfaction will follow if the task remains challenging.B.F. Skinner had a major influence on ID through behaviorism and programmed instruction. He believed the best way for creating a good learning environment was to identify the desired behavior, then create situations in which successive approximations of the behavior would occur and be reinforced.Merrill's Component Display TheoryMerrill's Component Display Theory (DDT) describes the micro elements of instruction (single ideas and methods for teaching them). It is designed to work in conjunction with Riegeluth's theory.CDT is comprised of three parts:A performance/content dimension comprised of the desired level of student performance and type of content.Four primary presentation formsA set of prescriptions relating the level of performance and type of content to the presentation forms.The theory classifies learning into two dimensions:Content, which consists of facts, concepts, procedures, and principles. Content ranges from facts, which are the most basic forms of content, to principles. It is the actual information to be learned. The four types of content in component display theory areFacts - logically associated pieces of information. Some examples are names, dates, and events.Concepts - symbols, events, and objects that share characteristics and are identified by the same name. Concepts make up a large portion of language and understanding them is integral to communication.Procedures - a set of ordered steps, sequenced to solve a problem or accomplish a goal.Principles - work through either cause-and-effect or relationships. They explain or predict why something happens in a particular way.Performance, made up of remembering, using, and generalities. Performance is classified with remembering as being the simplest form of performance, to finding (generalities) the most advanced. Performance is the manner in which the learner applies the content. The three types of performance are:Remembering - the learner is required to search and recall from memory a particular item of information,Using - the learner directly apply the information to a specific case andFinding - the learner uses the information to derive a new abstraction (concepts, principles, etc.).By forming a matrix using content and performance, the instructor determines which elements on the matrix are the goals for the learner.Simplified MatrixFacts, Concepts, Procedure, Principles, Remembering, using, FindingThe theory also identifies four primary presentation forms:-Rules-Examples-Recall-PracticeAnd some secondary presentation forms:-Prerequisites-Objectives-Helps-Mnemonics-Feedback.The matrix is set up to determine the level of performance needed for an area of content. For each of the categories in the matrix, it can be assumed in CRT that there is a combination of primary and secondary presentation forms that will provide the most effective and efficient acquisition of skills and knowledge available. CRT specifies that instruction is more effective when it contains all the necessary primary and secondary forms. Thus, a complete lesson would consist of an objective, followed by some combination of rules, examples, recall, practice, feedback, helps, and mnemonics appropriate to the subject matter and learning task.The theory is primarily designed for use by groups of learners. Several components are provided so that a wide variety of learners may participate, however each learner only needs the components which specifically work for her to achieve the goals of instruction. What is known as "sequencing and organizing epitomes" in Reigeluth's Elaboration theory, is commonly referred to as "chunking." For example, "Instructional Design" is chunked or epitomized into:1.Analysis2.Design3.Develop4.Implement5.EvaluateEach of the above epitomes or chunks are further divided. For example, Development is divided as:-List Learner Activity-Choose Delivery System-Review Existing Material-Develop Instruction (this page)-Synthesize-ValidateDeveloping Instruction (Instructional Design) is divided into several theories and a model (at least on this site). Notice how we took a complex subject and chunked it into small, bite size pieces.

Reigeluth’s Elaboration TheoryCharles Reigeluth was a doctorate student of Merrill. He used a sequencing approach that is consistent with Merrill's Component Display Theory (that is, each theory enhances the other). Reigeluth believes that instruction is made out of layers and that each layer of instruction elaborates on the previously presented ideas. By elaborating on the previous ideal, it reiterates, thereby improving retention. This layering has a zoom lens sequencing approach that runs from simple to complex and repeated general-to-specific:Present overview of simplest and most fundamental ideasAdd complexity to one aspectReview the overview and show relationships to the detailsProvide additional elaboration of detailsProvide additional summary and synthesis.This zoom lens approach first looks at the subject through a wide-angle lens. That is, the subject matter is general and fundamental. This allows us to deal with the core aspects of the subject. Elaboration begins with an overview of the simplest and most fundamental ideas of the subject.Then we start to zoom in with the lens so that we pick up some details and specifics about the subject matter. We can also observe the relationships between the wide-angle subject shot and the zoom details. This principle as applied to elaboration theory is called a cognitive zoom.As we continue to zoom, we go into great detail with each iteration or layering. Note that we are primarily concerned with the sequencing of ideas as opposed to the individual ideas themselves. Each zoom that we make is called a sequence. Sequencing in this case relates to fundamental ideas or core principles. The basic ones are presented first, this in turn, leads to a great layer of specifics. Each sequence of ideas or principles are called epitomes in elaboration theory. The epitome serves as a foundation from which more specific information may be developed. The Seven Steps in Elaboration1. SequenceThis simple to complex procedure can take many forms such as an overview, advance organizer, or spiral curriculum. This sequence is one in which the general ideas epitomize rather than summarize, and the epitomizing is organized on the basis of a single type of content:Conceptual - Concepts are certain sets of objects, events, or symbols that have certain common characteristics.Procedural - Procedures are sets of actions intended to achieve an end.Theoretical - Principles are changes in something else, generally denoting cause and effect. One of these three contents is chosen to achieve the goals of a lesson or course. Epitomizing is structured as follows:One type of content is chosen (conceptual, procedural, or theoretical).All the organizing content in the course is then listed. The most basic and fundamental ideas are selected and presented at the application level. This is the subject matter before the first level of elaboration:PrechunksBefore we epitomize (chunk) the subject matter it is in a state of disarrayThis is after elaboration:PostchunksWe put chaos into order when we chunk (epitomize) the subject matterFrom this first layer or epitome, we can then elaborate by organizing (the second step) the content.2. OrganizeThe second step elaborates upon organizing the content in the first level. This process continues in the same way as the first step of Sequence. The relationships that result between the levels are organized according to content. At each level the expanded epitome is used to create a means to elaborate upon the next level.Epitomes can be sequenced according to the order of steps:Forward Chaining is presenting them in the order in which they are performed.Backward Chaining is presenting them in the reverse order (backwards).Hierarchical Sequencing is presenting all the major sub steps separately before integrating them into a step in the sequence.General to Detailed Sequencing is presented by summarizing.Simple to Complex Sequencing is presenting them by their shortest paths (procedures) with each successive path becoming more complex.Each epitome should be examined closely to determine if the learners have the essential knowledge that will allow them to learn the subject matter. If the necessary knowledge is not present, it must be provided.3. SummarizationIn order to systematically review what has already been learned, a summarizer is created. A summarizer provides a concise statement of each idea, an example. Two types of summarizers are used:Internal - The summary comes at the end of the lesson and deals specifically with the content of that lesson.Within-set - This deals with all that has been learned so far in a particular set of lessons. This can include other lessons that coordinate with that lesson.4. SynthesizeThis step integrates and interrelates the ideas taught thus far. The goal is to facilitate deeper understanding, meaningfulness, and retention in regards to the content area.5. AnalogyAnalogy is the use of a familiar idea or concept to introduce or define a new idea or concept. Analogies aid the trainer in reaching the learner's field of experience. Presenting analogies throughout the instruction helps the learners to build on their present knowledge or skills.6. Cognitive-Strategy ActivatorThere are two categories of cognitive-strategy activators:Imbedded - Uses pictures, diagrams, analogies, and other elements that force the learner to interact with the sequence and content.Detached - Causes the learner to employ a previously acquired cognitive skill.7. Learner ControlLearner Control deals with the freedom of the learner to control the selection and sequencing of such instructional elements as content, rate, components (instructional-strategy), and cognitive strategies.
NotesNote that this is a macro strategy of instructional design that focus on the organization and sequencing of subject matter content by addressing the four design problem areas: selection, sequencing, synthesizing, and summarizing. Elaboration theory is best suited for teaching causal relationships and sequences rather than problem solving or facts. It works in conjunction with component-display theory, which deals with the micro aspects of instruction and works out the details of elaboration.
Constructivist TheoryConstructivism is a learning theory, not an instructional approach, hence it can best be thought of as a way of "growing" or improving instruction. It is greatly influenced by Piagetian epistemology and Lev Vygotsky.Constructivists place the learner at the center of the equation; the idea is that the learner constructs knowledge rather than passively absorbs it. Meaning is constructed by the learner, each in her own way. It is based on according to how the learner's understanding is currently organized. An individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events. In many classrooms, the predominant training model is direct instruction, which called instructivism or objectivism (based on information processing theory). The trainer's central role is to transmit knowledge to learners and learner's role is to absorb information (reception and compliance). In this model the trainer's performance is critical. Also, there is a over-reliance on rote memorization, which does not give the learners the skills in how to think and solve problems. However, in today's real-world context, the work environment is becoming a learning environment (learning organization). Learners will not make use of concepts and ideas unless they use them through some type of process, that is, learners master only those activities they actually practice. Note that this is an assumption in both constructivism and rote learning environments. Both constructivism and instructivism are required as learners need to be able to solve complex problems and be able to understand the reasons or methods they use to reach their conclusions. Note that this follows Bloom's Taxonomy in that it goes from simple leaning to the higher levels of critical thinking.Strategies for Using Constructivism in TrainingGood interactive strategies enhance the cognitive, social, and emotional climate. Small Group ActivitiesIn traditional classroom training, small group exercises involves the more conventional notion of cooperation, in that learners work in small groups on an assigned project or problem under the guidance of the trainer who monitors the groups, making sure the learners are staying on task and are coming up with the correct answers (if there is a right or a best answer). This is known as cooperative learning.Collaborative learning is a more radical departure. It involves learners working together in small groups to develop their own answer through interaction and reaching consensus, not necessarily a known answer. Monitoring the groups or correcting "wrong" impressions is not the role of the trainer since there is no authority on what the answer should be. One small group method is "Numbered Heads Together" developed by Spencer Kagan. This method divides the learners in groups of three to six. Each group is assigned a team number and each group member is assigned a number. When the trainer poses a question, group members get together, examine the possibilities, and construct an answer. The trainer then picks a number by drawing a card or rolling a die. The number selected designates the spokesperson for each table group. A second number designates the table group that will respond first. Learner Developed InstructionConstructivist learning theory also places importance on the learner's point of view. Make a point of including participant requests in the design process. Although it requires extra work, the payback in engagement and learning is well worth the effort. This is because the learners bring some form of prior knowledge to presentations. These conceptions (and misconceptions) should become part of the design process for the experience you are trying to create. A mind map is a good method for helping a learner to present her current theories. Metacognition and ReflectionMetacognition allows the learner to plan, set time lines, allocate resources. Also, metacognition also refers to the ability to reflect on one's own performance. Reflection allows the learners the opportunity to develop, assess, and organize their thoughts.Other Activities-Ask questions-Identify situations where the learners' perceptions vary-Brainstorm possible alternatives-Have the learners:-Look for information-Experiment with materials-Observe phenomena-Conduct an experiment-Design a model-Collect and organize data-Employ problem-solving strategies-Select appropriate resources-Review and critique solutions

An Instruction Design Model1. Chunk the material (epitomize)2. Sequence it into a logical structure3. Build an Interest Device (Get their Attention)If you are building this to pass on to another instructor, then they might want to use their own interest device. However, you should always build one for back up purposes.4. Organize the ObjectivesThis is the Task, Condition, and Standard built in the design phase. Normally, the objectives built are too stiff or formal for informing the learners. Reword them.If at all possible, get the learners' input for the objectives - what do they need to learn that will make their job more effective or efficient. Let them play a part in constructing their learning.5. Stimulate Recall of Prior KnowledgeBuild on what the learners know.How does this instruction relate to what they already know?6. Create Strategies to Foster Critical Thinking and Deeper UnderstandingBuild activities. Consider needs first; technologies last (see sidebar in media). Your task is to solve real world problems and not to advocate computers or other technologies just for the sake of technology. Technologies can enhance training; they do solve training problems.We learn what we do.Relate the information to the learner's interests.Short lectures are OK, but break them up with active participation.Point out content relationships.Ask rhetorical questions.Ask the learners for examples (this allows them to build upon their experiences).7. Build Summaries and Relate it to the Next Period of InstructionProvide regular summaries. Give them time to gather their thoughts.Build in Reflection periods for deeper understanding8. Test the learners.What we get tested on is what we remember the most and the longest.This should have been built in the Design Phase.9. Help with the Transfer of Learning

Instructional Technology and Challenges of 21st Century
Many exciting applications of information technology in schools validate that new technology-based models of teaching and learning have the power to dramatically improve educational outcomes. As a result, many people are asking how to scale-up the scattered, successful “islands of innovation” instructional technology has empowered into universal improvements in schooling enabled by major shifts in standard educational practices. Undertaking “systemic reform” (sustained, large-scale, simultaneous innovation in curriculum; pedagogy; assessment; professional development; administration; incentives; and partnerships for learning among schools, businesses, homes, and community settings) requires policies and practices different than fostering pilot projects for small-scale educational improvement. Systemic reform involves moving from utilizing special, external resources to reconfiguring existing budgets in order to free up money for innovation. Without undercutting their power, change strategies effective when pioneered by leaders in educational innovation must be modified to be implemented by typical educators. Technology-based innovations offer special challenges and opportunities in this scaling up process. I believe that systemic reform is not possible without utilizing the full power of high performance computing and communications to enhance the reshaping of schools. Yet the cost of technology, its rapid evolution, and the special knowledge and skills required of its users pose substantial barriers to effective utilization. One way to frame these issues is to pose six questions that school boards, taxpayers, educators, business groups, politicians, and parents are asking about implementing large-scale, technology-based educational innovations. After each question, I’ll respond to the issues it raises. Collectively, these answers outline a strategy for scaling-up, leveraging the power of technology while minimizing its intrinsic challenges.

Question One: How can schools afford to purchase enough multimedia-capable, Internet connected computers so that a classroom machine is always available for every two to three students?
Giving all students continuous access to multimedia-capable, Internet-connected
computers is currently quite fashionable. For politicians, the Internet in every classroom has become the modern equivalent of the promised “chicken in every pot.” Communities urge everyone to provide volunteer support for Net Days that wire the schools. Information technology vendors are offering special programs to encourage massive educational purchases. States are setting aside substantial amounts of money for building information infrastructures dedicated to instructional usage. Yet, as an educational technologist, I am more dismayed than delighted. Some of my nervousness about this initiative comes from the “First Generation” thinking about information technology that underlies these visions. Multimedia-capable, Internet-connected computers are seen by many as magical devices, “silver bullets” to solve the problems of schools. Teachers and
administrators who use new media are assumed to be automatically more effective than those who do not. Classroom computers are envisioned as a technology comparable to fire: just by sitting near these devices, students get a benefit from them, as knowledge and skills radiate from the monitors into their minds. Yet decades of experience with technological innovations based on First Generation thinking have demonstrated that this viewpoint is misguided. Classroom computers that are acquired as panaceas end up as doorstops. As discussed later, information technology is a cost effective investment only in the context of systemic reform. Unless other simultaneous innovations in pedagogy, curriculum, assessment, and school organization are coupled to the usage of instructional technology, the time and effort expended on implementing these devices produces few improvements in educational outcomes—and reinforces many educators’ cynicism about fads based on magical machines.
I feel additional concern about attempts to supply every student with continuous access to high performance computing and communications because of the likely cost of this massive investment. Depending on the assumptions made about the technological capabilities involved, estimates of the financial resources needed for such an information infrastructure vary. Extrapolating the most detailed cost model (McKinsey & Company,1995) to one multimedia-capable, Internet-connected computer for every two to three students yields a price tag of about ninety-four billion dollars of initial investment and twenty-eight billion dollars per year in ongoing costs, a financial commitment that would drain schools of all discretionary funding for at least a decade. For several reasons, this is an impractical approach for improving education.
First, putting this money into computers-and-cables is too large an investment in just one part of the infrastructure improvements that many schools desperately need. Buildings are falling apart, furnishings are dilapidated, playgrounds need repair, asbestos must be removed...otherwise, the machines themselves will cease to function as their context deteriorates. Also, substantial funding is needed for other types of innovations required to make instructional hardware effective, such as standards-based curricular materials for the World Wide Web and alternative kinds of pedagogy based on partnerships between teachers and tools. (The McKinsey cost estimates do include some funding for content development and staff training, but in my judgment too little to enable effective technology integration and systemic reform). If most of the money goes into new media, little funding is available for the new messages and meanings that those devices could empower.
Second, without substantial and extended professional development in the innovative models of teaching and learning that instructional technology makes affordable and sustainable, many educators will not use these devices to their full potential. “Second Generation” thinking in educational technology does not see computers as magic, but does make the mistake of focusing on automation as their fundamental purpose. Computers are envisioned as ways to empower “teaching by telling” and “learning by listening,” serving as a fire hose to spray information from the Internet into learners’ minds. However, even without educational technology, classrooms are already drowning in data, and an overcrowded curriculum puts students and teachers on the brink of intellectual indigestion. Adding additional information, even when coated with multimedia bells-and-whistles, is likely to worsen rather than improve educational settings. Professional development needs are more complex than increasing educators’ technical literacy (e.g., training in how to use web browsers). The issue is building teachers’ knowledge and skills in alternative types of pedagogy and content, and such an increase in human capabilities requires substantial funding that will be unavailable if almost all resources are put into hardware.
Third, the continuing costs of maintaining and upgrading a massive infusion of school based technology would be prohibitive. High performance computing and communications requires high tech skills to keep operational and will become obsolete in five to seven years as information technology continues its rapid advance. Yet taxpayers now see computers as similar to blackboards: buy them once, and they are inexpensively in place for the lifetime of the school. School boards rapidly become restive at sizable yearly expenditures for technology maintenance and telecommunications usage—especially if, several months after installation, standardized test scores have not yet dramatically risen—and will become apoplectic if another $50B to replace obsolete equipment is required only a few years after an initial huge expenditure. For all these reasons, investing a huge sum in information infrastructures for schools is impractical and invites a later backlash against educational technology as yet another failed fad. I would go farther, however, and argue that we should not make such an investment even if the “technology fairy” were to leave $100B under our virtual pillows, no strings attached. Kids continuously working on machines with teachers wandering around coaching the confused is the wrong model for the classroom of the future; I wince when I see those types of vendor commercials. In that situation—just as in classrooms with no technology—too much instructional activity tends to center on presentation and motivation, building a foundation of ideas and skills as well as some context for why students should care. Yet this temporary interest and readiness to master curricular material rapidly fades when no time is left for reflection and application, as teachers and students move on to the next required topic in the overcrowded curriculum, desperately trying to meet all the standards and prepare for the test. Substantial research documents that helping students make sense out of something they have assimilated, but do not yet understand is crucial for inducing learning that is retained and generalized (Schank & Jona, 1991). Reflective discussion of shared experiences from multiple perspectives is essential in learners’ converting information into knowledge, as well as in students mastering the collaborative creation of meaning and purpose (Edelson, Pea, & Gomez, 1996).
Some of these interpretative and expressive activities are enhanced by educational devices, but many are best conducted via face-to-face interaction, without the intervening filter and mask of computer-mediated communication (Brown & Campione, 1994). What if instead much of the presentation and motivation that is foundational for learning occurred outside of classroom settings, via information technologies part of home and workplace and community contexts? Students would arrive at school already imbued with some background and motivation, ripe for guided inquiry, ready for interpretation and collaborative construction of knowledge. People are spending lots of money on devices purchased for entertainment and information services: televisions, videotape players, computers, Web TV, videogames. Many of these technologies are astonishingly powerful and inexpensive; for example, the Nintendo 64 machine available now for a couple hundred dollars is the equivalent of a several hundred thousand dollar graphics supercomputer a decade ago. What if these devices—many ubiquitous in rich and poor homes, urban and rural areas—were also utilized for educational purposes, even though not acquired for that reason? By off-loading from classroom settings some of the burden of presenting material and inducing motivation, learning activities that use the technology infrastructure outside of schools would reduce the amount of money needed for adequate levels of classroom-based technology. Such a strategy also enables teachers to focus on students interpretation and expressive articulation without feeling obligated to use technology in every step of the process.
Such a model of “distributed learning” involves orchestrating educational activities among classrooms, workplaces, homes, and community settings (Dede, 1996). This pedagogical strategy models for students that learning is integral to all aspects of life—not just schooling—and that people adept at learning are fluent in using many types of information tools scattered throughout our everyday context. Such an educational approach also can build partnerships for learning between teachers and families; this is important because parental involvement is certainly one of the most powerful levers in increasing any student’s educational performance.
In other words, unless “systemic reform” in education is conducted with one boundary of the system around the school and another boundary around the society, its affordability and sustainability are doubtful. As a bridge across these boundaries, new media can play a vital role in facilitating this bi-level approach to large-scale educational innovation. For example, videogame players are the only interactive devices widely available in poor households and provide a sophisticated, but inexpensive computational platform for learning. My research in virtual reality illustrates how multi-sensory, immersive virtual environments could leverage learning complex scientific concepts on computational platforms as commonplace as next decade’s videogames (
Districts can leverage their scarce resources for innovation, as well as implement more effective educational models, by utilizing information devices outside of classrooms to create learning environments that complement computers and communications in schools. To instead saturate schools with information technology is both very expensive and less educationally effective.

Question Two: How can schools afford enough computers and telecommunications to sustain new models of teaching and learning?
Educational improvement based on distributed learning—utilizing information
technologies external to school settings to enable increased interpretive and expressive activities in classrooms—does not mean that schools won’t need substantial amounts of computers and communications. To empower project-based learning through guided inquiry, students must have access to sophisticated information devices in schools (Linn, 1997). Even if this is accomplished via notebook computers and wireless networks moved from class to class as required, with pupils also spending significant amounts of time learning without the aid of technology, districts must allocate more money to purchasing, maintaining, and upgrading computers and telecommunications than has been true historically. Where will educators find the funds for equipment, software, technical staff, ongoing telecommunications services, professional development—the myriad of costs associated with a sophisticated information infrastructure? In the past, this money has come largely from special external sources: grants, community donations, bond initiatives. To be sustainable over the long run, however, resources for technology must come from reallocating existing budgets by reducing other types of expenditures. Of course, such shifts in financing are resisted by those groups whose resources are cut, and district administrators and school boards have been reluctant to take on the political challenges of changing how money is spent. An easy way to kill educational innovations is to declare that of course they will be implemented—as long as no existing activities must be curtailed to fund new approaches. Such an approach to institutional evolution is one reason why, if Rip Van Winkle awoke today, he would recognize almost nothing in modern society—except schools.
Educational organizations are unique, however, in demanding that technology
implementation accomplished via add-on funding. Every other type of societal institution (e.g. factories, hospitals, retail outlets, banks) recognizes that the power of information devices stems in part from their ability to reconfigure employee roles and organizational functioning. These establishments use the power of technology to alter their standard practices, so that the cost of computers and communications is funded by improvements in effectiveness within the organization, by doing more with less. If educators were to adopt this model—reallocating existing resources to fund technology implementation—what types of expenditures would drop so that existing funds could cover the costs of computers and communications?
First, schools that have adopted the inquiry-based models of pedagogy find that outlays on textbooks and other types of standardized instructional materials decrease. While these materials are a smaller part of districts’ budgets than salaries or physical plants, nonetheless they cost a significant amount of money. When students collect their own data, draw down information across the Internet, and interact with a larger pool of experts than teachers and textbooks, fewer commercial presentational resources are required—especially if learners draw on topical data flowing through information sources outside of schools. Moreover, covering a few concepts in depth rather than surveying many ideas superficially reduces the amount of prepackaged information educators must purchase.
Second way to reconfigure existing financial resources is to reduce the staff involved in data entry operations. Educators are inundated with large amounts of recordkeeping functions, and one of the most debilitating aspects of this work is the continuous reentry of identical information on different forms. Businesses have saved substantial amounts of money by altering routine information processes so that data is only entered once, then automatically flows across the entire organization to each place in which it is needed. Were educators to adopt these already proven models for cost-efficient information management, the amount of time and staff required for data entry functions would decrease markedly, freeing funding for instruction-related uses of technology.
Third, and on a more fundamental level, teaching is more efficient and effective with new types of technology-based curriculum and pedagogy. At present, substantial re-teaching of knowledge and skills is required; presentational material flows into students’ minds, is retained just long enough to perform on a test, and then is forgotten. Class sizes are typically between twenty-five and forty—somewhat too large for effective project-based learning, yet small given that lectures work as well for several hundred students as for several dozen. The scheduling of class periods is too short, limiting teachers and students to fragmentary presentational and practice activities. Teachers all have comparable roles with similar pay structures—unlike other societal organizations, which have complementary staff roles with a mix of skill levels and salaries. Visions presented in the forthcoming 1998 ASCD Yearbook (Dede & Palumbo, in press) depict how altered configurations of human resources, instructional modalities, and organizational structures could result in greater effectiveness for comparable costs—even with the acquisition of substantial school-based technology. This case is also made at greater length in Hunter & Goldberg (1995).
In the commercial sector, too often these types of institutional shifts result in layoffs. However, because of the coming wave of retirements among educators, districts have a window of opportunity to accomplish structural changes without major adverse impacts on employees. Over the next decade, large numbers of “baby-boom” educators will leave the profession, and a staged process of organizational restructuring could occur in parallel with those retirements. Coordinating technology expenditures as an integral part of that larger framework for institutional evolution is vital in districts’ planning to afford computers and communications.
Question Three: How can many educators disinterested or phobic about computers and communications be induced to adopt new technology-based models of teaching and learning?
Thus far, most educators who use technology to implement the alternative types of pedagogy and curriculum are “pioneers”: people who see continuous change and growth as an integral part of their profession and who are willing to swim against the tide of conventional operating procedures—often at considerable personal cost. However, to achieve large-scale shifts in standard educational practices, many more teachers must alter their pedagogical approaches; and schools’ management, institutional structure, and relationship to the community must change in fundamental ways. This requires that “settlers” (people who appreciate stability and do not want heroic efforts to become an everyday requirement) must be convinced to make the leap to a different mode of professional activity—with the understanding that, once they have mastered these new approaches, their daily work will be sustainable without extraordinary exertion. How can a critical mass of educators in a district be induced simultaneously to make such a shift?
Studies of innovation in other types of institutions indicate that successful change is always bottom-up, middle-out, and top-down. The driver for bottom-up innovation in a district is the children. Typically, students are joyful and committed when they are given the opportunity to learn by doing, to engage in collaborative construction of knowledge, and to experience mentoring relationships. That these types of instruction are accomplished via educational technology will excite some kids, while others will be indifferent—but all will appreciate the opportunity to move beyond learning by listening. Educators can draw enormous strength and purpose from watching the eager response of their students to classroom situations that use alternative forms of pedagogy. Often, teachers have shifted from pioneers to settlers because they were worn down by the unceasing grind of motivating students to master uninteresting, fragmented topics; and administrators have undergone a similar loss of enthusiasm by being inundated with paperwork rather than serving as instructional coordinators. The professional commitment that kids’ enthusiasm can re-inspire is a powerful driver of bottom-up change. The source of middle-out change is a district’s pioneers. Many teachers entered the profession because they love students of a certain age and want to help them grow—or love their subject matter and want to share its beauty and richness. Often, these teachers feel alienated because the straightjacket of traditional instruction and school organization walls them away from meaningful relationships with their students and their subject. Similarly, many administrators want to serve as leaders and facilitators, but are forced by conventional managerial practices into being bureaucrats and bosses. Middle-out change is empowered when educators who have given up hope of achieving their professional dreams see pioneer colleagues using technology to succeed in those goals—and realize that, if everyone made a similar commitment, no one would have to make continuous personal sacrifices to achieve this vision.
The lever for top-down innovation is the community served by the district. Educators want respect—yet teaching has fallen from a revered professions to a much lower status. The relationship between educators and their community is seldom seen as a partnership; instead, teachers and administrators often feel isolated, forced to perform a difficult task with inadequate resources. Parents, the business sector, and taxpayers bitterly debate the purpose of schools and sometimes attempt to micro-manage their operation. In contrast, when homes, classrooms, workplaces and community settings are linked via new media to achieve distributed learning, much more positive interactions emerge between schools and society. Educators can move from isolation to collaboration with the community, from a position of low esteem to an respected role in orchestrating children’s learning across a spectrum of settings. This shift in status is a powerful driver for innovation. To activate these bottom-up, middle-out, and top-down forces for improvement, educators must take the lead in developing a shared vision for systemic reform, distributed learning, and sophisticated utilization of technology. Making such a commitment to large-scale educational innovation is not only the right thing to do, but is increasingly essential to educators’ professional integrity. In many ways, physicians working in health maintenance organizations (HMOs) face challenges similar to teachers and administrators working in today’s schools. These doctors are responsible for the well-being of their patients, but work within administrative structures that restrict their decision making capabilities, that are focused on saving money at least as much as on combating illness, and that do not provide the latest technology or much time and resources for professional development. Yet we expect those physicians to do whatever it takes—fight the system for what the patient needs, spend personal time mastering the latest medical advances and technologies—to help those whom they serve. To do otherwise would be malpractice, a betrayal of trust, a breach of ethics as a professional. Given advances in information technology that are reshaping the knowledge students need and the ways educators can help them learn, we need to accept a professional obligation—despite current institutional constraints—to do whatever it takes in changing traditional instructional practices so that a generation of children is truly prepared for the 21st century.

Question Four: How do we prove to communities that new, technology-based models of teaching and learning are better than current instructional approaches?
Few communities are willing to take educational innovations “on faith.” Many people are uneasy about whether conventional instruction and traditional testing are developing and assessing the types of knowledge and skills children need for their future. However, most parents and taxpayers feel that the current system worked for them and do not want to substitute something radically different unless new methods are proven to be superior. What types of evidence can educators offer communities that innovative, technology-based models of teaching and learning are so much better—given what our society needs in the 21st century—that the substantial cost and effort of systemic reform is more than worth the trouble?
Research documents that new, technology-based pedagogical strategies result in at least four kinds of improvements in educational outcomes. Some of these gains are easy to communicate to the community; others are difficult—but together they constitute a body of evidence that can convince most people. These four types of improvements are listed below, in sequence from the most readily documented to the hardest to demonstrate.
Increased learner motivation.
Students are very excited when exposed to learning experiences that go beyond information assimilation and teaching-by-telling. Guided inquiry, project-based collaboration, and mentoring relationships all evoke increased learner motivation, manifested via readily observable indicators such as better attendance, higher concentration, and greater time on task. All of these not only correlate with increased educational performance, but also are in stark contrast to the attitudes parents and taxpayers formed about most of their schooling. Documenting to communities that students care about what they are learning and are working hard to achieve complex goals is not difficult, given the ubiquity of videotape players and camcorders. Student-produced videos that show learners engaged and excited are intriguing to parents and taxpayers, who may not fully understand what is happening in the classroom, but are impressed by student behavior divergent from their own memories and likely to result in better learning outcomes. Too often, educators take little advantage of this easy way to open a dialogue about instructional improvement with the community.
Advanced topics mastered.
Whatever else they believe about the purposes of schooling, parents want their children to have a prosperous lifestyle and know that this necessitates mastering advanced concepts. In the 21st century, being a successful worker and an informed citizen will require the sophisticated knowledge delineated in the national curriculum standards, especially in the sciences and mathematics. Information technology can help students not only to learn these difficult concepts, but also to master the learning-how-to-learn skills needed to keep their capabilities current in a rapidly evolving economy. When shown that technology based instructional strategies enable teaching sophisticated ideas not now part of the conventional curriculum, more complex than the items on current standardized tests, and harder than what they learned in school, taxpayers are impressed.
Students acting as experts do.
Developing in learners the ability to use problem solving processes similar to those of experts is challenging, but provides powerful evidence that students are gaining the skills they will need to succeed in the 21st century. One of the most striking features of a classroom based on new instructional models is that learners are behaving as do teams of scientists, mathematicians, designers, or other kinds of expert problem solvers. Pupils’ activities in these learning environments mirror the analytic, interpretive, creative, and expressive uses of information tools increasingly characteristic of sophisticated workplace settings. When parents and taxpayers see students perform complex tasks and create intricate products, they are impressed by the similarity between the recent evolution of their own workplaces and the skills children are developing.
Better outcomes on standardized tests.
The most difficult type of evidence to provide for the superiority of new, technology-based instructional models is what communities first demand: higher scores on conventional measures of achievement. Standardized tests are designed to assess only a narrow range of knowledge, and the other three types of improvements just discussed fall largely outside the scope of what they measure. A major challenge for educational assessment is to develop methods that measure a wider range of skills than paper-and-pencil, multiple choice tests, without bogging educators down in complex, time-consuming, and potentially unreliable performance evaluations. Research shows that students’ outcomes on conventional achievement tests rise when technology-based educational innovations are implemented, but this does not occur immediately, as teachers and learners must first master these new models of pedagogy. To succeed in systemic reform, educators must prepare communities for the fact that test scores will not instantly rise and that other, complementary types of improvements less easy to report quantitatively are better short-range measures of improvement. Overall, the single most effective means of convincing parents, the business community, and taxpayers that technology-based models of teaching are superior to conventional instructional approaches is to involve them in students’ education. Through distributed learning approaches that build partnerships between schools and society, communities have ample opportunities to observe the types of evidence discussed above, as well as to further enhance students’ educational outcomes.

Question Five: How can educational technology increase equity rather than widen current gaps between “haves” and “have-nots?”
Implemented within a larger context of systemic reform, emerging information technologies can produce dramatic improvements in learning outcomes. But won’t such educational usage of computers and communications widen inequities in our society? However ample the access to technology students have in schools, learners differ greatly in the amount and sophistication of information devices in their homes and communities. Isn’t all this effort simply making education better for the “haves,” potentially worsening our society’s pathological gaps in income and power? Certainly, new media such as Web TV are dropping in price, and almost all homes have videogames, television, and videotape players—but won’t the rich always have more information devices of greater power than the poor, skewing the advantages of distributed learning and increasing inequality?
From an historical perspective, innovative information technologies at first widen inequities within civilization, because initial access to the differential advantage they bring is restricted to the few who can afford the substantial expense of this increased power. As emerging media mature, drop in price, and are widely adopted, however, the ultimate impact of information technology is to make society more egalitarian. For example, the world of universal telephone service is a more equitable environment than was the world of messenger boys and telegraph offices. The challenge for current educational policy is to minimize the period during which the gap between haves and have-nots widens, rapidly moving to a maturity of usage and an universality of access that promotes increased equity. At present, most of society’s attempts to decrease the widened inequalities that new educational technologies could create are centered on access and literacy. In schools that serve disadvantaged and at-risk populations, extra efforts are made to increase the amount of computers and communications available. Similarly, educators and learners in have-not situations are given special training to ensure that they are literate in information tools, such as web
browsers. To compensate for more home-based technology in affluent areas, many feel that our best strategy is providing teachers and students in low socioeconomic status areas with additional technology to “level the playing field” (Coley, Cradler, & Engel, 1997). While a good place to begin, this approach to educational equity is inadequate unless taken beyond access and literacy to also address issues of content and services. The on-line materials and types of assistance that learners and teachers can access must reflect the needs and interests of diverse and at-risk students. For example, I can take homeless people to the public library and show them how to use a web browser to download images of impressionist paintings at the Louvre, but this is not likely to motivate or impress them, since such a learning experience does not speak to their primary needs. Similarly, emerging graphical interfaces such as Microsoft Windows? enhance many users’ capabilities, but adversely affect learners with reduced eyesight who cannot effectively manipulate the visual features of these interfaces.
The real issue in equity is empowerment—tailoring information technology to give dispossessed groups what they want. For example, I worked with a local team of politicians to explore the implications of information technology for improving public services. They were excited about using community-based information terminals to offer improved access to health care, welfare, education, and other social services for the immigrant and minority populations they served. However, when I began to describe how on-line communication tools could help these groups to increase their participation in voting and to form coalitions for political action, the elected representatives immediately lost interest. To truly achieve educational equity, working collaboratively with have-not populations is vital in developing content and services tailored to their needs and designed to build on their strengths and agendas. Otherwise, improving access and literacy will fall short of the success for all students essential to America’s prosperity in the 21st century.

Question Six: If we use technology well, what should we expect as “typical” student performance?
If we were to implement systemic reform based on new strategies for learning through sophisticated technology, research suggests that “typical” students might do as well as “exemplary” learners do now. Our expectations for what pupils can accomplish are far too low, largely because standard educational processes are obsolete given the progression of information technology, insights into the nature of learning, and shifts in the educational outcomes society needs. In many ways, we live in the “Dark Ages” of schooling—restrained from making rapid advances toward increased instructional effectiveness by outmoded ideas, ritual, and tradition. Setting our sights higher and using better metrics to measure progress are vital to successful innovation. For example, many people are intrigued by results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), which show the United States well behind nations such as Singapore and Japan on math and science outcomes from a globally developed achievement test. Crusaders are implementing reforms to ensure that our students do much better on this test. However, our goal should not be to exceed the level of Singapore on an assessment instrument that, as described earlier, measures only a fraction of what students need to know for their future prosperity—and moreover incorporates a diluted definition of educational quality negotiated across many countries with very different populations and national goals. Others advocate using a standards-based curriculum as the touchstone for educational effectiveness, and reformers are centering state and national judgments of educational worth on this measure. Certainly, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards are a major improvement over the hodgepodge math curriculum before their inception, as are the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) standards and similar efforts in other fields. But our metric for whether students succeed should not simply be whether they learn the math mathematicians think is important, the science scientists feel is vital, and so on. Being a productive worker and citizen involves much more than having an adequate background in each field of knowledge. Integrating these concepts and skills and being a lifelong learner with the self-worth, discipline, and motivation to apply this knowledge is of paramount importance—yet not captured by discipline-based standards alone.
New forms of pedagogy are also no “philosopher’s stone” that can make golden each educational experience for every learner. Some argue that, if only all classrooms were based on constructivist learning or situated cognition or individualized tutoring or multimedia presentations or integrated learning systems or whatever pedagogical panacea, every student would succeed.
However, learning is a very complex and idiosyncratic process that requires, for each pupil, a repertoire of many different types of instruction orchestrated together. In other words, no test, no curriculum, and no instructional strategy in itself can guarantee educational quality—even though our current approach to determining schools’ worth is based on these inadequate measures. Instead, we need new standards for a knowledge-based society that combine all these metrics for success and that are based on much higher levels of “typical” student outcomes.
Successful technology-based innovations have the common characteristic that learners exceed everyone’s expectations for what is possible. Second graders do fifth grade work; nine graders outscore twelfth grade students. What would those ninth graders be accomplishing if, from kindergarten on, they had continuous access to our best tools, curriculum, and pedagogy?
Would they be the equivalent of college sophomores? We are selling short a generation by expecting less and by orienting our curriculum, instruction, and tests accordingly.

My responses to the six questions above sketch a conceptual framework for thinking about the process of scaling-up from islands of innovation to widespread shifts in standard educational practices. These answers illustrate that technology-based systemic reform is hard in part because our ways of thinking about implementation are often flawed. Large-scale educational innovation will never be easy, but can be less difficult if we go beyond our implicit assumptions about learning, technology, equity, schooling, and society. Understanding the scaling-up process is vital for making strategies for change affordable, generalizable, and
1. Cognitive objectives can be achieved effectively by the use of instructional technology. 2. The learner gets opportunity to learn. Individual differences can be controlled though this technology. 3. The right responses of the students are confirmed for providing the reinforcement continuously. 4. It incorporates the physiological learning theories and principles. 5. The learning external conditions contiguity relation practice and reinforcement are created with the help of instruction. 6. The instructional theory may be developed by using this category of technology in learning process. 7. I.T can be employed in shortage of effective teachers. 8. Provides deep insight of the content structure and sequence of its elements. 3. Behavioral Technology It studies the nature and structure of behavior of the organism. “Learning is the modification of behavior through activities and experiences”. Assumptions: · Teacher Behavior is observable. · Teacher behavior is measurable and quantifiable. · Teacher behavior is relative. · Teacher behavior is social and psychological · Teacher behavior is modifiable. 4. Instructional Design: It involves 3 major concepts. 1. Teaching psychology 2. Cybernetic psychology 3. System Analysis Scope of Instructional Technology · Improves teaching learning process. · Can remove defects provided by mass education. · Can make correspondence more effective by Radio, T.V, and Tape recorder. · Limitation of teacher training institutions can be removed. · System analysis can be used to remove administrative problems. · Removes the ineffectiveness of routine theoretical research. · Development of teaching models. · Provides scientific foundation to develop theories of teaching and instruction.
1) As Cultural Transmission According to Durkheim, society consists of a collection of ideas, sentiments and habits that its members hold in common. We are immersed in an atmosphere of collective ideas and sentiments which we can not voluntarily modify that was what he called, “Collective consciousness “to explain the social order. If we ask the question that, what role the “instructional education“ can play in binding individuals to their society ? Then, Durkheim states that, whole sociological and educational theory is aimed at strengthening the social tries among individuals. And only individual is not the central concern of education, rather It is to be on successfully transmitting culture. 2. As individual growth. The problem of an individual are neglected when there are strong ties in society. There is an opposite’s difference among views of experts e.g. Durkheim says that reasoning begins with the group and moves to individual but Carl Rogers says opposite to it. The aim of instructional technology is not designed to create a new individual. It helps the individual to regain his qualities which he had been unable to gain through socialization. Roger says that the teacher or instructor is a facilitator. He insists that instruction does not mean to teach anybody but it is rather concerned with helping individuals learn what. They want to know and the instruction technology follows the techniques ,methods to help a person to learn something. If people can regain selfhood through educational therapy, they will regain their natural ability to associate with others and community grows when individuals are freed from collective consciousness. Roger moves to the main objective of I. Tech., that people who have undergone successful instructional therapy, no matter what their background or culture, come to share a direction (value) that problems social harmony. They are more able to tolerate change or more open to inner experience. 3. As democratic process. Thoughtless obedience to the will of others produce only “ the other directed personality “ as described by the David Riesman. It was also called impression management by E. Goff man. Davy saw the lack of connection between the individual and society as major problem of modernization. In democratic process when does the instructional technology plays its role? When communities, institutions and other social organizations become inflexible and limit the freedom and innovations and the individual personality become rigid and intolerant of change their instructional technology worries to make the situations flexible and democratic. The intelligent technique / methods of I.Tech offer us freedom to control by routine, prejudice & dogma. It reorganizes people to choice when it exists and the wisdom to choose wisely. Domains and Levels of Instructional Objectives Educational Objectives Stage wise Overall Objectives class/ grade Subject wise Objectives wise objectives Objectives Lesson wise objectives Unit wise objectives The educational objectives can be classified in to 3-main categories according to Blooms Taxonomy. 1. Cognitive Domain These domains can be further classified on the basis of complexity and hierarchy of mental functions. i) Knowledge i.e. events, principles etc. ii) Comprehension i.e. To interpret iii) Application iv) Analysis v) Synthesis i.e. creating (something new) vi) Evaluation 2. Effective Domain: It is concerned with the development of interest, attitude an values. i) Receiving (Attending) i.e. learner willingness to receive ii) Responding i.e. Student attention iii) Valuing i.e. Commitment / Acceptance to value. iv) Organization i.e. Development of attitude. v) Characterization of value complex 3. Psychomotor domain It relates to the development of physical skills. i) Imitation: i.e. Repetition of action ii) Manipulation: i.e. follows direction of acts. ii) Precision: i.e. to produce desired act. iv) Articulation: i.e. acquires skill to present. v) Naturalization: i.e. Habit formation